CLDR 34 Release Note


Unicode CLDR 34 provides an update to the key building blocks for software supporting the world's languages. CLDR data is used by all major software systems for their software internationalization and localization, adapting software to the conventions of different languages for such common software tasks.

CLDR 34 included a full Survey Tool data collection phase, adding approximately 6M of data overall, resulting in the following language support:

🆕 is for languages reaching the level in this release. Tongan (to), Konkani (kok), Dzongkha (dz), Tatar (tt) were already in ICU, while Sindhi (sd), Maori (mi), Turkmen (tk), Javanese (jv), Interlingua (ia), Kurdish (ku), Xhosa (xh) are being included for the first time in the upcoming ICU 63. The above counts are just for the languages (with multiple entries for multi-script languages such as Serbian or Chinese) — there are many additional regional locales.

Other notable changes include:

    • Data added for locales

      • New units such as atmosphere, petabyte, and others.

      • Many new emoji keywords and corrections/refinements of previous keywords and names.

      • New subdivision data (where available in Wikipedia).

      • Many typographic terms such as “extrafina” (“ultra light”) for font UI interfaces

      • New 'and' list, short and narrow 'or' lists.

      • Many other changes depending on the locale: for details, see Delta Data.

  • Japanese calendar era

      • Changes to prepare for the new era starting 2019-05-01. This will affect most software shipping in Japan — see New Japanese Era.

  • Other Emoji

      • Updates from Emoji Subcommittee for collation and grouping, bringing similar emoji closer together — especially affecting smileys.

  • Specification

    • Section 3.2 Unicode Locale Identifier — Fixes to syntax, canonical form description, and relation to BCP47

    • Section 3.3 BCP 47 Conformance — Reorganized for clarity, introduced new terms Unicode BCP 47 locale identifier and Unicode CLDR locale identifier, and added a conversion.

    • Section 3.4 Language Identifier Field Definitions — Addition of special Qaag code for Zawgji, documented mis, mul, zxx, XA, and XB

    • Section 4.2.6 Inheritance vs Related Information — Added table to explain the relationship between Inheritance, DefaultContent, LikelySubtags, and LocaleMatching.

    • Part 2, Section 6 Unit Elements — Defined the syntax of unit identifiers.

    • Part 3, Section 5 Language Plural Rules — Added a new section covering the language-independent explicit plural cases “0” and “1”

    • Part 4, Section 2.6.3 Element intervalFormats — Described how to synthesize intervalFormatItems for skeletons that combine date and time fields

For details, see Detailed Specification Changes, Detailed Structure Changes, Detailed Data Changes, Growth.

Detailed Specification Changes

For detailed specification changes, see LDML34 Modifications.

Detailed Structure Changes

    • Calendar

      • For supplemental calendar <era> elements, a new attribute “named” indicates whether the era has been assigned a name (part of preparation for Japan era transition). If false, the era will not be used in formatting. [#10750]

    • Units

      • Added <displayName> as a subelement for <coordinateUnit>, to provide a name such as “cardinal direction” for any of the <coordinateUnitPattern > elements. [#9986]

    • Patterns

      • Added short patterns for "at most" and "approximately" (the latter for use in smart number ranges) [#11046] (and data for main languages)

    • Misc

      • Deprecated territoryCodes@internet [#11072]

      • The telephone number data (telephoneCodeData.xml) has been deprecated and removed from CLDR. [#10383]

Detailed Data Changes

    • Data additions and updates from Survey Tool data submission and vetting. For details see the detailed delta charts.

In addition, the following changes were made. This is not complete: for a full list see the list of bug fixes.

    • Calendar

      • In supplemental calendar data for Japanese calendar, added era 236 starting 2019-05-01 with attribute named="false"; in “root” and “ja” locales, added placeholder era names for era 236 (part of preparation for Japan era transition). [#10750]

      • In supplemental calendar data for Japanese calendar, fixed invalid date values for some historic Japanese-calendar eras. [#11399]

      • Changed the firstDay (first day of week for calendar display)...

        • from Monday to Sunday for PT Portugal. [#10716]

        • from Sunday to Monday for IE Ireland [#11192]

        • from Saturday to Monday for MA Morocco. [#11052]

        • from Sunday to Monday for TN Tunisia.. [#11052]

      • Changed weekend from fri-sat to sat-sun for MA Morocco, TN Tunisia. [#11052]

    • Date formatting

      • Added intervalFormats for skeletons with era to gregorian and generic calendars for “root”, “en”, and “ja” locales (part of preparation for Japan era transition). [#11327]

      • In Finnish, changed date formats to use either full or numeric months names, avoiding the abbreviated names (which are still available as symbols). [#10870]

      • In Korean, fixed a problem in which many formatted dates in certain calendars (buddhist, japanese, minguo) displayed a doubled character for month “월월”. [#11347]

    • Currency codes and symbols

      • Added “¤” as the symbol for unknown currency XXX. This used to be done by ICU in code, but it makes more sense to have the data in CLDR. [#11074]

      • In Thai locale, changed the symbol for THB from “THB” back to “฿”. [#10316]

      • Support new Venezuelan currency VES as the default starting from 2018-08-20.

      • Changed currency patterns for “az” (Latn, Cyrl) to put symbol at the end

      • Added support for MVP as historic currency of Maldives.

    • Units

      • Added units for concentr-percent (e.g. “25%)” and concentr-permille (e.g. “37‰”). The former may be able to replace some usages of the <percentFormats> in <numbers>; it provides different display widths and plural forms, through it does not include a number format and cannot vary by number system. [#10632]

      • Added units for pressure-atmosphere (e.g. “1 atm”) and digital-petabyte (e.g. “10 PB”). [#10600, #14075]

    • Plural rules

      • Rules added for (cardinals) ia, sc ; (ordinals) gd, ia, sc

    • Emoji

      • Reviewed and revised emoji names and keywords for most languages

        • The survey tool voting process was adapted to support sets more naturally

      • Updated the emoji ordering to group characters more naturally [#11227], ...

      • Revised the derived name generation (for complex emoji) for more consistency with the new hair styles

    • Data Cleanup

      • Modified the input processor for Kyrgyz [#10738] and Urdu [#10543]

      • Improved the Zawgji detection/conversion for input to Survey Tool

      • Fixed Dutch dayPeriod names to use correct apostrophes.

    • Misc

      • Added fallbacks for "or" lists [#11254]

      • Added English names for Pseudolocales [#10880]

      • Cleaned up root parseLenient data [#11055]

      • Deprecated the telephone number elements and removed telephoneCodeData.xml from CLDR [#10383]

      • Changed default region for “ia” Interlingua from FR to 001 (World).

      • Several corrections to number spellout rules for Hungarian.

      • Added Uighur to IPA transliterator [#11318]

      • Added data for England, Scotland, Wales (now done with Survey Tool [#10252])

    • The French locale now uses narrow no-break space U+202F is several places: as the numeric grouping separator, in many short unit patterns, and in the locale display name patterns. It also changed normal space to no-break space U+00A0 in the wide unit patterns.


The following summarizes the number of changes (additions + corrections) for languages in the release.

The following shows languages with a larger relative number of changes. For the first line, there are over 20% additions alone, not counting corrections.

TBD: add chart


    • French grouping separator changed from no-break space U+00A0 to narrow no-break space U+202F.

    • The telephone number data (telephoneCodeData.xml) has been deprecated and removed from CLDR. [#10383]

  • Locale codes has been changed for Ff (Fular) locales to include the script tag Latn in anticipation of expected Adlam support in the upcoming release. (e.g. ff_CM has been renamed to ff_Latn_CM).

Known Issues

(These may addressed in a maintenance update)

  • For en_AU, the timeSeparator symbol has '.', while the actual time formats use ':'. [#11462]

  • In several locales (en, kl, ksh) the symbol for NaN is “¤¤¤” which in incorrect in that it uses number format pattern characters, and thus causes problems for currency parsing. [#11492]

    • For pt_PT, the compact decimal currency formats have the curency symbol at the beginning, which is inconsistent with standards currency patterns. [#11295]


Many people have made significant contributions to CLDR and LDML; see the Acknowledgments page for a full listing.

Key to Header Links

The Unicode Terms of Use apply to CLDR data; in particular, see Exhibit 1.

For web pages with different views of CLDR data, see