Grammatical Inflection

This topic is new since CLDR v38 and addresses new grammatical inflections.

For a limited number of locales and units of measurement, we are adding support for inflections for noun case and gender. The following is the limited set of locales in v38:

Grammatical Feature



pl, ru, de, hi


pl, ru, de, nb, da, sv, hi, es, fr, it, nl, pt

Not all units will have the extra information: they are limited to a subset of about 75. For these units, many but not all forms have “seed” data, marked as provisional.

💡 Translation tips: 

  • For CLDR v38, many of the new data items have "seed" data supplied for them. These are marked as provisional (), and need to be reviewed. 
  • If you use the Dashboard, DO NOT just use the pencil icon ✏️ to change items. If you do that, you can't ensure that the seed data and original data is consistent. Instead, right click on the Code value, such as:

Miscellaneous > Minimal Pairs

Here you need to add patterns that distinguish different cases or genders.

  1. Case. Provide a phrase that requires the noun or noun/adjective placeholder to be in that case.

    1. For example, for German, “... mit {0} ...” requires the {0} to be in the dative case (for a noun phrase).

    2. There should be some noun-phrase placeholder that would change form for each member of the set. 

    3. Not all possible placeholder values will exhibit differences. For example, in German only masculine noun phrases are different in the accusative case (den Mann vs der Mann). Sometimes you may need a combination of words, as is done for Welsh plurals.

  2. Gender. Provide a phrase that requires a noun or noun/adjective placeholder to have that gender. 

    1. For example, the phrase “Die {0} ist…” requires the noun to be feminine (singular) .

    2. The placeholder for gender will be different words. 

    3. Make sure that the phrase limits unwanted forms. For example, “Die {0}” would be insufficient for German feminine, because the placeholder could be masculine plural. 

Units > Compound Units 

There are two Codes that need your attention: Power2 and Power3. These are typically adjectives, and would need to agree with unit of measurement.

The Code is now longer, allowing for case and gender. If the language doesn’t have case, the case will be “nominative”. If the language doesn’t have gender, it will be “dgender”. That is also used for a selected instance for gendered languages: either neuter or masculine (if the language has no neuter). Example: 

  • long-one-nominative-dgender requests the masculine case in French
  • long-one-nominative-feminine requests the feminine case in French

(Note: the dgender is a workaround: we plan to show the correct value in the future)

Units> Other > Liter > gender 

If your language supports gender for units of measure, you’ll see a new element for the gender of each relevant unit. For example, a Liter in German is masculine. If you try to put in an illegal value, you’ll get a message that lists the valid values for your locale, such as [stop]The gender value for this locale must be one of: [feminine, masculine, neuter]

Many of the units have “seed” values for the gender variants. These are marked as provisional, and you’ll have to verify whether they are correct or need changes.

Units> Other > Liter > long-one-accusative

If your language support case inflections for units of measure, you’ll see new rows for the relevant units. You should pick the form appropriate for the case and plural category. Often it is the same as for some other category.

Many of the units have “seed” values for the case variants. These are marked as provisional, and you’ll have to verify whether they are correct or need changes.

English (inch-pound) units. Many of the units are just used in a few English-speaking countries. While it may seem pointless to translate these obscure units, there are circumstances that require them.

Some inch-pound units are of different sizes in the US and the UK.  To distinguish them, the Header will use the term Imperial for the British version. For example, Gallon is always the US version, and Gallon-Imperial is always the UK version.

  1. Typically locales will just qualify the UK version, such as “{0} Imp. Gallone” or “{0} britische Gallone”. The seed data may differ between these conventions; if so you’ll have to change either the seed data or the data from the last release.

  2. In some cases, the US version has a qualification, such as “{0} amerikanische Flüssiggallone”. Again, you’ll want to check that the last-release and seed data are consistent, and fix if not.

  3. In some cases, the seed data will be completely wrong, and have a name for the UK version being used for the US unit, or vice versa. These you’ll need to fix.

  4. You also want to review the other units to make sure that they have consistent phrasing. For example, you don’t want “Flüssiggallone” for one unit, and simply “Gallone” for another.

  5. In general, shorter is better, as long as it is clear.